Matura rozszerzona – czytanie – ćw. 8

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Some years ago, executives at Houston airport faced a troubling customer-relations issue. Passengers complained about the long waits at baggage reclaim. In response, the executives increased the number of baggage handlers working that shift. The plan worked: the average
wait fell to eight minutes. But the complaints persisted.

Puzzled, the airport executives undertook a more careful, on-site analysis. They found out that it took passengers a minute to walk from their arrival gates to baggage reclaim and seven more minutes to get their bags. So the airport decided on a new approach: instead of reducing
wait times, it moved the arrival gates away from the main terminal and routed bags to the outermost carousel. Passengers now had to walk six times longer to get their bags. Complaints dropped to near zero.

This story hints at a general principle: the experience of waiting is defined only partly by the objective length of the wait. Research on queuing has shown that people overestimate how long they’ve waited in a line by about 36 percent. It’s been reported that one of the main factors determining how we feel about lines is our expectations. Uncertainty magnifies the stress of waiting, while feedback in the form of expected wait times and forecasts of delays eases the experience. And beating expectations lifts our mood. All else being equal, people who wait less than they anticipated leave happier than those who wait longer than expected. Professors Carmon and Kahneman have found that we are more concerned about how long a line is than how fast it’s moving. Given a choice between a slow-moving short line and a fast-moving long one, people opted for the former, even if the waits were identical.

Americans spend roughly 37 billion hours a year waiting in lines and complain a lot about it. I often wonder why queuing is so irritating. I’m inclined to think that in this era of constant rush, the dominant cost of waiting must be an emotional one: the nagging feeling of guilt that you are wasting your time, when you could be getting on with your business or be engaged in some creative endeavor. We’ll never eliminate lines altogether but for me when all else fails, a gripping book is a way out.
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6.1. By quoting the case at Houston airport the writer presents
6.2. Which of the following is stated in the article as an opinion, and not a fact?